Secondary Cold Contact Urticaria (Secondary CCU) is acquired and is associated with:
|Cryoglobulin, Cryofibrinogen, Cold Agglutinin,|
|Bee Stings, Parasites, Helicobacter Pyloris|
|Infectious Diseases: Mononucleosis, Strep Throat, Epstein Barr Virus, Dental, Sinus and Urinary Tract Infections, Bacterial Infections|
|Measles, Mumps, Chicken Pox, Hand Foot Mouth Disease, M Pneumonia, Adenovirus, Influenza A, Cytomegalovirus|
|Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Lymphoma, Autoimmune Disorders (Celiac; SLE (Lupus); Sjogrens; Anti IgG, IgM, IgA)|
|Hypothyroidism, Hepatitis C|
|Medications such as oral birth control pills, Antifungal Therapy, Aspirin, Ibuprofen|
|Monthly Hormone Changes|
Secondary Cold Contact usually affects young adults with a duration of disease of four to five years with remission or improvement in symptoms in the majority of the patients within five years.
Patients with autoimmune urticaria frequently have associated angioedema and the urticaria tends to run a more chronic course.
When plasma is refrigerated at 4ºC for up to 72 hours, proteins may precipitate (cryoprecipitate). If refrigerated serum and plasma both form a precipitate, then the precipitated proteins are referred to as cryoglobulins. If, however, precipitation develops after refrigeration of plasma but does not occur in cold serum, the plasma precipitate is referred to as cryofibrinogen.